This study compares the specificity and characteristics of two Swiss hard (Gruyère) cheese varieties manufactured at different altitudes: i) L’Etivaz cheese manufactured at L’Etivaz with 2 production sites (L’Etivaz 1 & I’Etivaz 2, 1300-2100 m), ii) Gruyère cheese manufactured Montbovon (1000 m) and at Grangeneuve/Posieux (600 m). These four production sites were studied during the summer 1995, from the beginning of June until mid-September. Observations were carried out at each site: botanical composition of the pastures, chemical composition of the grass, chemical composition of milk, cream and cheese which was ripened over 8-9 months, as well as sensory and rheology properties of cheese. The botanical composition was markedly different but the cheese production methods were similar excepted for milk heating (with open log fire producing some smoke in L’Etivaz or in steam heated vats in Montbovon and Posieux). All cheese loaves (n = 49) matured in the same ripening cellar under identical conditions. This study clearly highlights numerous differences of composition (fatty acids, triglycerides, trace elements, volatile components including terpenoids, polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as well as flavour between highland and lowland milk products.
Plants and microorganisms can perceive and respond to sound waves. In a review of the literature, Agroscope analysed various publications on this topic. The studies show that sound can lead to positive effects on physiology in the form of improved growth, development and disease resistance.
The war in Ukraine, dry spells and droughts followed by heavy rainfall and flooding are major challenges for our food systems. But the problems that they bring to light are nothing new – and solutions are already to hand.
Biogenic amines in foods represent a health risk. Researchers from Agroscope and INRAE investigated the formation of these undesirable substances in raclette cheeses by the bacterium Morganella morganii.