An environmental life cycle assessment of different wheat cropping systems (intensive United Kingdom, intensive, integrated and organic Switzerland) was established. The results reveal that wheat cropping systems with a reduced input use proved to be most favourable from an ecological point of view, provided that the yield reaches a certain level. the sensitivity of the examined cropping systems to factors which do not depend on the cropping methods indicates that the terms „intensive”, „integrated” and „organic” are only conditionally suitable to qualify the cropping systems from an ecological point of view.”
Thanks to their unique landscapes, the 15 Swiss parks, the majority of which are located in the (pre-)Alps and in the Jura Arc, feature as tourist attractions. But do the parks also provide economic value-added for local agriculture?
To balance their nutrient cycles, Swiss farms export surplus farmyard manure to farms with free uptake capacities or to composting and anaerobic digestion facilities. Between 2015 and 2020 the volumes of organic manure and recycled fertilisers transported rose significantly, with a consequent increase in transport costs.
Employment in the agricultural sector is declining in many European countries, especially in livestock farming. Direct payments can counter this trend and lead to the employment of more – especially female – family members on the farm.