During 34 days 4 x 16 female and castrated male piglets of the large white breed received a complete feed with the following vitamin A-, E- and D-concentrations in two consecutive series: Treatment A: 4000 IE, 16 mg, 500 IE, treatment B: 6500 IE, 16 mg, 1100 IE, treatment C: 10000 IE, 25 mg, 1500 IE, treatment D: 18500 IE, 40 mg, 1700 IE per kg feed with 88% dry matter. The experimental feed consisted of barley, maize, wheat, wheat bran, oat flakes, soya- and rape meal. The average energy content per kg feed was 13.2 MJ DEP and 16.8% crude protein, respectively. No growth promoting substances were used. Daily gain, feed conversion, health status as well as liver-vitamin-concentrations were investigated. With a daily gain of 230 g, 206 g, 238 g and 203 g for the treatments A, B, C and D the treatments do not differ significantly (P ³ 5 %). The same is valid for the feed conversion. As to the health status, judging from the number of diarrhoea and other treatments, there are no differences between the four treatments. No differences were observed neither in the metabolic profile nor in the bone mineralization. In contrast to this the vitamin A concentration in the liver significantly increases with growing vitamin amount (P < 1%). The corresponding values for treatments A, B, C and D are: 108 a , 173 b , 287 c and 446 d IE vitamin A/g fresh matter. Between the vitamin A concentration of the ration and that of the liver there is a relation of r2 = 0.91 (P < 1 %, y = 26.8923 + 0,0233865 * vitamin A concentration of the ration). The results show, that Swiss feeding standards with 4000 – 8000 IE vitamin A, 15 mg vitamin E and 500 – 1000 IE vitamin D (FAG 1993) allow an adequate vitamin supplementation of piglets under normal housing conditions.
Stable climate has an important impact on the respiratory health of horses. In a study on indoor climate quality, three different ventilation systems were tested.
Although milk-production oriented (MPO) cow breeds have also become established in the mountain region, farms with the dual-purpose ‘Original Simmental’ breed are proving to be economically viable, with lower costs and higher direct payments making up for lower revenues from milk.
High milk yields before drying-off increase the risk of udder infections during the dry period. An online survey highlights what drying-off methods are currently used and how farmers rate the ‘incomplete milking’ approach for reducing milk yield.