This paper deals with biodiversity conservation by economic activities in the food and nutrition sector. A case study about the growing and marketing of the wheat species Emmer (Triticum dicoccum) in the region Schaffhausen analyses necessary success factors for the development of similar regional economic activities. Such success factors are the involved regional production capabilities, entrepreneurship, market strategy and third party support for the project. The case shows that for instance success in product and market development is dependent from subsidies and from political and societal support. The case allows to draw the following conclusions for policy: the early steps of project development require broad support, a biodiversity friendly agriculture is dependent on subsidies, the existence und functioning of regional primary and secondary production structures is necessary and has to be maintained.
Policies to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas emissions are more effective and more efficient if they are set at the regional level and not at the level of individual farms. This can help achieve climate targets.
Global food availability is expected to remain stable in the medium term. Food security challenges in Switzerland include the decline in agricultural land area per capita, higher incidence of extreme weather events and increased pressure from pests.
Different cultural backgrounds lead to different uptake of biodiversity agri-environmental schemes at the inner-Swiss French-German language border. Economic policy incentives could mitigate culture-driven behavioral differences.