353 cereal samples (wheat: 193; triticale: 71; barley: 46; oats: 27; rye: 16) were randomly sampled and assayed for deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone using ELISA kits. Positive samples were analysed using GC-MS for DON determination and HPLC for zearalenone determination. DON levels > 1 mg/kg (up to 12 mg/kg) were detected in 4 wheat and in 4 triticale samples, and zearalenone levels > 200 µg/kg (up to 1.6 mg/kg) were detected in 2 wheat and in 5 triticale samples. None of the other cereals contained > 1 mg/kg DON or > 200 µg/kg zearalenone. The percentage of contaminated samples was higher in 2002 than in previous years presumably because adverse weather conditions had favoured fusarium growth. Nevertheless, the percentage of contaminated samples was low and the risk of fusariotoxicosis in animals that consume compound feeds formulated with indigenous cereals is therefore considered to be small.
Stable climate has an important impact on the respiratory health of horses. In a study on indoor climate quality, three different ventilation systems were tested.
Although milk-production oriented (MPO) cow breeds have also become established in the mountain region, farms with the dual-purpose ‘Original Simmental’ breed are proving to be economically viable, with lower costs and higher direct payments making up for lower revenues from milk.
High milk yields before drying-off increase the risk of udder infections during the dry period. An online survey highlights what drying-off methods are currently used and how farmers rate the ‘incomplete milking’ approach for reducing milk yield.