This study shows results on the content of individual free fatty acids in six different ripened winter and summer Swiss cheeses. The sum of the content of free fatty acids formed by lipolysis was always higher in winter cheeses than in summer ones, the one in Emmental being 4 to 5 times higher than in Gruyère, Sbrinz, Tilsit, Appenzell and Vacherin fribourgeois. The high value in Emmental is due to the highest lipolytic activity of the propionic acid bacteria. Lowest values were found in the Vacherin fribourgeois cheese because of the use of mesophilic bacteria. In the other cheeses, the values were similar due to the use of a mixture of meso- and thermophilic bacteria. The concentration of the individual bound fatty acids in cheese fat was also determined and that of free fatty acids expressed as a percentage of the fatty acids in fat. The number of significantly different fatty acids between the seasons was considerably reduced when compared to that obtained when the free fatty acids alone was determined. Among the many factors which influenced the lipolytic activity, the different feeding modes during the seasons were therefore very important. The remaining significant differences between the percentage of free fatty acids, independent of fodder, concerned two short chain free fatty acids for Emmental cheese and C18 long chain free fatty acids for the other cheese types.
Soya-, cereal-, seed- or nut-based plant drinks are consumed increasingly frequently as milk substitutes. Agroscope researchers have studied the macro- and micronutrients in these drinks and have identified major differences between the plant drinks themselves as well as in comparison with milk.
Cheese varieties from Switzerland are characterised according to various criteria. Agroscope analysed the free volatile carboxylic acids in ten cheese varieties and demonstrated that the latter are suitable for characterisation and differentiation.
Spring J.-L., Reynard J.-S., Verdenal T., Zufferey V., Cléroux M., Dienes-Nagy Á., Bourdin G., Bieri S., Blouin A., Carlen C., Favre G.
Safeguarding the clonal diversity of Muscats in the Valais has enabled the characterisation of 42 Muscat à petits grains and 36 Moscato Giallo clones. The characteristics of the two are quite distinct, particularly their aromatic potential. The best clones will be included in the Swiss certification scheme.