Actually the FAT database of standard times in horticulture is revised. In general standard times are measured in grape, appel, cherry and berry cultures and some single vegetable cultures.The application of the standard time methods is described by using different examples of horticultures. The focus is on the difference between standard times on the one hand and actual times being used for example as working reports. Standard times and standard times databases belong to the preferred planning instruments for consulting horticultural farms. In combination with economic calculation instruments the lack of work effiency in production systems can be revealed.
Thanks to their unique landscapes, the 15 Swiss parks, the majority of which are located in the (pre-)Alps and in the Jura Arc, feature as tourist attractions. But do the parks also provide economic value-added for local agriculture?
To balance their nutrient cycles, Swiss farms export surplus farmyard manure to farms with free uptake capacities or to composting and anaerobic digestion facilities. Between 2015 and 2020 the volumes of organic manure and recycled fertilisers transported rose significantly, with a consequent increase in transport costs.
Employment in the agricultural sector is declining in many European countries, especially in livestock farming. Direct payments can counter this trend and lead to the employment of more – especially female – family members on the farm.