The present study analyses the influence of certain components or modules of the standard labour unit (SLU) on the work income per annual labour unit. SLU module 1, based on general structural characteristics such as area and livestock numbers, has a major positive impact. The complements to SLU module 1, and module 2, however, do not show homogenous effects. Work income is also influenced by the cost shares of animal husbandry, contract work and machines.
Policies to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas emissions are more effective and more efficient if they are set at the regional level and not at the level of individual farms. This can help achieve climate targets.
Global food availability is expected to remain stable in the medium term. Food security challenges in Switzerland include the decline in agricultural land area per capita, higher incidence of extreme weather events and increased pressure from pests.
Different cultural backgrounds lead to different uptake of biodiversity agri-environmental schemes at the inner-Swiss French-German language border. Economic policy incentives could mitigate culture-driven behavioral differences.