Structural change in agriculture is not only affected by the next generation’s decision to give up or take over the family farm, but also by the decision to continue running the farm as a fulltime venture or as pluriactivity. In an empirical study, it was shown that it is not the proportion of non-farm-related wageearning activity that is critical in determining the likelihood of the farm being taken over by the next generation, but rather other economic and social factors.
Thanks to their unique landscapes, the 15 Swiss parks, the majority of which are located in the (pre-)Alps and in the Jura Arc, feature as tourist attractions. But do the parks also provide economic value-added for local agriculture?
To balance their nutrient cycles, Swiss farms export surplus farmyard manure to farms with free uptake capacities or to composting and anaerobic digestion facilities. Between 2015 and 2020 the volumes of organic manure and recycled fertilisers transported rose significantly, with a consequent increase in transport costs.
Employment in the agricultural sector is declining in many European countries, especially in livestock farming. Direct payments can counter this trend and lead to the employment of more – especially female – family members on the farm.