As most European countries, Switzerland has signed the Gothenburg Protocol to abate acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone. The protocol puts pressure on Swiss livestock producers to implement measures to reduce their ammonia emissions. Dietary modifications (optimization of crude protein concentration) will affect, as a begin-of-pipe measure, all emission stages from barn to field. The aim of the present study was to gain an overview of the current pig-feeding practices in Switzerland. A survey was conducted based on data from manufactures, comprising 70-80 % of the Swiss pig-feed market. The declared crude protein values comply with analyzed values. The survey showed that, depending on the feed category, 70-75 % of the feed is sold with reduced nitrogen (crude protein) and phosphorus concentrations (NPr feed). Based on an energy concentration of 13,5 MJ DE, the average CP concentrations for fattening pigs are 172,3 g CP/kg for standard and 155,5 g CP/kg for NPr diets. Finisher diets only have a marginal CP reduction compared to fattening diets. The difference in CP concentrations between standard and NPr feed is much smaller for piglet and sow diets compared to fattening diets. 25 – 30 % of pig feed is not sold as NPr diets. In addition, part of the diets for finishing pigs and gestating sows are overformulated regarding CP. Adaptations in theseareas offer potential for reducing ammonia emissions.
Stable climate has an important impact on the respiratory health of horses. In a study on indoor climate quality, three different ventilation systems were tested.
Although milk-production oriented (MPO) cow breeds have also become established in the mountain region, farms with the dual-purpose ‘Original Simmental’ breed are proving to be economically viable, with lower costs and higher direct payments making up for lower revenues from milk.
High milk yields before drying-off increase the risk of udder infections during the dry period. An online survey highlights what drying-off methods are currently used and how farmers rate the ‘incomplete milking’ approach for reducing milk yield.