The average wheat yield in Switzerland has increased from 13dt/ha in 1850 to 60dt/ha today. The present study investigates the factor variety in this spectacular yield improvement. Yield, yield components and nitrogen efficiency efficacy of seven Swiss wheat varieties released between 1926 and 2003 and the French variety Caphorn (released in 2001) have been studied in standardized plot trials for 2 years and at 2 nitrogen fertilization levels (low nitrogen level and medium extenso level). Grain yield shows a constant increase of about 0.24dt/ ha/year, in direct correlation with the year of release of the varieties. This impressive increase is due to the net increase of the number of grains produced per square meter. However, constant improvement of nitrogen utilization by the plants has strongly contributed to this evolution. Understanding of the evolution at both the morphological and the physiological level will contribute, in future, to breed varieties displaying an even more elevated efficacy of nitrogen utilization.
Stucky T., Hochstrasser M., Meyer S., Segessemann T., Ruthes A. C., Ahrens C. H., Dahlin P., Pelludat C.
The root knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita causes damage in field and greenhouse crops. Agroscope researchers have developed a new screening test to identify bacteria that antagonise this agricultural pest.
With CULTAN fertilisation, nitrogen is injected into the soil as an ammonium solution. Multi-year trials conducted by Agroscope show that this method reduces nitrogen leaching by an average 38% without negatively affecting yields.
Tuta absoluta is one of the most destructive pests of solanaceous crops. Agroscope has developed a statistical model to study the population dynamics of the pest and its parasitoids and allows interventions to be optimally planned.