Soiled traffic floor surfaces in cattlehousing systems represent plane sources for ammonia emissions. For emission-reduction purposes, the influence of the gradient on the drainage behaviour of water was quantified on a pilot-plant scale for seven different traffic surfaces. The surfaces were uniformly soiled with a mixture of excrements and urine. Measuring parameters were the duration of drainage, mass and spread area of the residual liquid. For all parameters, there were significant differences between the gradient levels up to 4 %. The decrease in both drainage time and residual mass was considerable, especially up to a gradient of 3 %. A further increase in the gradient occasioned only slight changes. Bearing in mind the structural consequences and any possible effects on the cows’ walking behaviour, a gradient of 3 % for traffic floor surfaces would appear to be advantageous.
While botanical composition, growth cycle and phenological stage are integral factors, they are not the sole determinants of the quality of grass silages from intensively managed permanent meadows.
Food that is unsuitable for human consumption does not affect the growth performance or carcass composition of pigs to which it is fed. This makes it a promising solution for reducing food waste.
Horses are ridden or driven on a variety of surfaces, which differently absorb the impact forces exerted on hooves, limbs and the horse's entire body. Objective measurement of the functional properties of equestrian arena surfaces is therefore of great importance.