Crop-load management is a vital cultural measure in apple-growing. Only when the number of fruits per tree corresponds to target crop-load levels do yield and quality match over the years. Crop load is influenced by various factors, and is deliberately reduced through thinning measures. The necessary intensity of thinning, however, is difficult to gauge, since the process must take place before the physiological fruit drop is over in early summer. Three approaches to early forecasting of crop load were refined, adapted and evaluated on fruit plots in Switzerland, Germany, Austria and Italy: fruit-growth measurement according to D.W. Greene; determination of the material composition of the fruit by means of near-infrared spectroscopy; and carbon-balance modelling (MaluSim). According to the investigations, fruit drop is not induced at a specific time, but can be induced repeatedly. Because of this, with the current state of developments, the quality and reliability of the forecasts were insufficient for application in practice. Nevertheless, the estimation of the expected effectiveness of a thinning treatment which can be derived using the carbon balance from MaluSim is promising, and would allow the dosage for the treatment to be specially adapted to the conditions in question.
Tall oat grass and golden oat grass are typical hay-meadow grasses that are also suitable for forage mixtures. Of the four tall and three golden oat grass varieties tested, only one new variety of tall oat grass is likely to make it onto the List of Recommended Varieties.
Stevenel P., Wendling M., Brabant C., Suss H., Savoyat C., Dierauer H., Mascher F., Charles R.
FiBL and Agroscope investigated bread wheat varieties to determine their yield and quality stability. The results show that the choice of variety must be adapted to the site and that high yield potential does not go hand-in-hand with a high protein content.
Adapted and high-yielding varieties of forage plants are important for Switzerland as a grassland country. Hybrid ryegrass is a versatile forage grass that, thanks to breeding advances, has become even more persistent, disease-resistant and high-yielding over the past 30 years.