In seed production of rye kernels frequently do not meet the minimum requirements for germination under laboratory conditions due to mechanical seed deterioration, preharvest sprouting and heavy infection with snow mold. Some triticale lots contain too many foreign cereal grains because triticale often follows wheat in the rotation. Additionally, snow mold infection causes abnormal seedling development, but chemical seed dressing can increase seed germination. Swiss seed companies are obliged to maintain supplementary multiplication surfaces of both grain species to serve the demand of the market. As seed quality is unknown until harvest, expenses of transport, cleaning and seed testing arise. We examined germination under laboratory conditions as the proportion of normally developed seedlings in samples of the rye varieties Matador and Palazzo and of the triticale variety Cosinus. Samples were taken in the field before harvest, after threshing, after pre-cleaning and at the end of the cleaning process. Grain moisture content of the samples was measured. The results revealed that grains of rye with moisture contents at harvest below 14% as well as above 16% showed reduced germination due to mechanical seed deterioration. Low grain moisture contents were measured in 2011 when the whole vegetation period was dry.For grains of the triticale variety Cosinus, only untreated seeds of lots with severe snow mold infections did not meet the minimum germination rate of 80%. As elimination of wheat kernels in the cleaning process is not efficient, farmers have to avoid wheat as preceding crop and must clean the thresher thoroughly between uses.
Spring J.-L-, Zufferey V., Verdenal T., Reynard J.-S., Lorenzini F., Bourdin G., Blouin A., Carlen C., Jermini M., Morisoli R., Ferretti M.
Five Merlot clones bred in Switzerland are currently being distributed by the certification sector. A multiyear trial conducted by Agroscope in Gudo (Canton of Ticino) has made it possible to compare them with French and Italian reference clones and to highlight their very good performances.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are important for healthy soils and crops. A pan-European study shows that plant-protection products adversely affect these fungi, reducing their ability to supply plants with phosphorus via their roots.
Birdsfoot trefoil and sainfoin are used in mixtures for perennial hay meadows and for tannin-containing fodder. Agroscope is adding two new cultivars of birdsfoot trefoil to the ‘List of Recommended Varieties of Forage Plants’, whilst there is no change in the case of sainfoin.