Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi) diversity was investigated in 12 selected long-term soil observation sites in the canton of Bern. These consisted of nine soils farmed according to Proof of Ecological Performance (PEP) production guidelines, of which three were natural meadows, three were no-till (NT) or ploughed (PL) arable soils, and three were ploughed arable soils farmed according to organic farming guidelines (ORG). The AM fungal spores from soil samples taken from the top 20 cm were isolated and morphologically determined. Of the total 57 detected species, 40–45 were found in natural meadows, 33–40 in PEP-NT soils, 31–35 in ORG-PL and 28–35 species in PEP-PL soils. Generally speaking, the meadows exhibited higher spore densities than the croplands. Indicator species were identified for each cropping system. Conservation tillage and wide crop rotations with a temporary-grassland component encouraged the AM fungal communities in the agricultural soils of the Bernese Midlands. The numbers of AM fungal species in these soils of the Bernese Midlands are higher than those previously reported from similar arable regions in central Europe.
A comparison of different methods of winter-wheat fertilisation with nitrogen showed that nitrogen surpluses can be significantly reduced by means of site-specific variable-rate nitrogen fertilisation.
Fabian Y., Roberti G., Jacot K., Gramlich A., Benz R., Szerencsits E., Churko G., Prasuhn V., Leifeld J., Zorn A., Walter T. (ꝉ), Herzog F.
Many tile drainage systems on arable land are in need of renewal. Cantons and stakeholders will now be given a decision-making tool enabling them to assess such areas in detail and to find sustainable solutions.
Ammonia emissions from the Swiss farming sector have scarcely declined over the past 20 years. This is because the factors leading to either an increase or decrease in emissions have for the most part cancelled each other out between 2000 and 2020.