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Plant production

Dupuis B., Reust W., Hebeisen T., Ballmer T.

Nitrogen supply of new potato varieties cultivated in Switzerland

Nitrogen fertilization trials were conducted in Switzerland with potato cultivars Lady Felicia, Derby, Victoria, Innovator and Marlen in Changins (VD) and Reckenholz (ZH). N Mineral fertilizer treatments varied from 0 to 200 kg N/ha, applied in one to three dressings from plantation until complete soil covering by the plants. The cultivars tested responded similarly to…
Plant production

Dorn B., Musa T., Krebs H., Padruot M. F., Forrer H. R.

From laboratory to field: Copper-free preparations for organic potato production

As of yet, effective direct control of potato late blight in organic potato production requires the application of copper fungicides. However, with common dosage, copper is ecologically harmful. Hence, a considerable reduction or replacement of copper compounds in disease control is desirable. In the framework of the EU-project Blight-MOP comprising a systems approach to manage…
Plant production

Rotzler D., Stamp P., Betrix C. A., De Groote J. C., Moullet O., Schori A.

Agronomic interest of lanceolate leaf in soybean

Adaptation of soybean to Swiss climatic conditions cannot be achieved without a significant reduction of leaf area. This aim can be reached by breeding lines with small leaflets, and also by hybridization using genotypes with lanceolate foliage. In general, the ln allele coding for narrow leaves has no effect on yield while reducing the leaf…
Environment

Aldrich A. P.

Sensitivity of amphibians to pesticides

The sensitivity of amphibians is not being tested for the registration of pesticides. It is implicitly assumed that surrogate species are at least as sensitive as amphibians. Based on literature data, it will be shown that the acute sensitivity of amphibians is comparable to the sensitivity of fish and aquatic invertebrates. It can be said,…
Food

Hadorn R., Beutler E., Schlüchter S., Eberhard P., Silacci P., Scherrer D.

Supplementation of pig trunk material to Saucisson vaudois

Saucisson vaudois, a cold-smoked raw sausage, were produced with and without 8 % trunk material in five meat processing plants being members of the Association charcuterie vaudoise IGP (ACV-IGP). Production occurred by the use of company-specific standards for the recipes and the processing parameters. Supplementation of 8 % trunk material differed only in a few…
Animal production

Miéville-Ott V., Meisser M., Chassot A., Freléchoux F.

PASTO project: towards a realistic scenario for meat production in mountain areas

The PASTO project tested and developed innovative practices in meat production based on Herens breed, that contribute to landscape preservation and to added value creating at local level. A multi-disciplinary approach evaluated the agronomical, economic, technical and sociological aspects of these practical cases. In the perspective of transferring the results to the practitioners, a transversal…
Animal production

Leiber F., Messikommer R., Wenk C

Buckwheat: a feed for broiler chicken?

Three broiler diets were composed, containing respectively 40% of wheat, hulled buckwheat or raw buckwheat. Respectively 24 male broiler chicken (Ross PM3) were fattened with one of these experimental diets from day 8 to 35 of life. Utilization of energy and nutrients as well as fattening performance and weights at slaughter were evaluated. Although fibre…

Stocking rates on pasture: effect on herbage quality and milk production

The effects of different stocking rates with grazing dairy cows, respectively post-grazing sward height (GHVP) were studied on herbage quality and milk production in a rotational grazing system under organic farming conditions. During three vegetation periods cows in production were divided into two groups on the organic farm l’Abbaye (Sorens, canton of Fribourg). 15% more…
Plant production

Schürch S., Frei P., Frey R., Wullschleger J., Sierotzki H.

Septoria leaf blotch of wheat: sensitivity to fungicides of the Swiss Mycosphaerella graminicola population

The fungicide resistance level of M. graminicola, a major agent of leaf blotch of wheat, was evaluated in 2008 for samples from 17 fields. Genes coding for the target proteins of QoI and DMI fungicides were characterised genetically. The frequency of the mutation conferring QoI resistance ranged between 1 and 96%, indicating that the Swiss…
Other

Aeberhard A., Rist S.

Transdisciplinary knowledge production in organic agriculture

Especially in the initial phase of organic agriculture practical knowledge and the cooperation between farmers, researchers and extension agents played a central role in knowledge production. At this time knowledge exchange shows many characteristics of transdisciplinary knowledge production. Since then the potential of the collaboration of practice and science has more and more been neglected.…
Animal production

Meisser M., Tarery M., Chassot A., Freléchoux F.

PASTO: pasture management and cattle behaviour in subalpine grasslands dominated by green alder

Shrubland increases in the Alps. One of the main objectives of the Pasto project was to assess the possibilities of limiting reforestation by means of suckler cows in the subalpine zone. Our work aims at clarifying the herd-vegetation relationship, both to ensure good grazing management and to understand the dynamics of reforestation. Most of the…
Environment

Freléchoux F., Viret M., Linder-Berrebi Y., Miéville-Ott V.

PASTO: vegetation dynamics and expectations of the population in terms of landscape

The population barely perceives changes in vegetation that occur very quickly in subalpine regions. In recent decades, large areas have been invaded by woody plants, whilst demand for an open, attractive and readable landscape remains strong. The results of the modeling of vegetation dynamics carried out on the pasture of Larzey show a strong and…
Environment

Fuhrer J., Jasper K.

Irrigation needs for arable land and grassland under current climatic conditions

The demand for irrigation is increasing and a further increase is expected with future climate changes. To support the planning of technical and political measures, data for current and future irrigation water requirements are necessary. Here, a hydrological simulation model was used to determine the need for irrigation water across Switzerland for the period 1980-2006…
Environment

Mühlethaler U., Kamm U.

Innovative direct seeding method in the forest

Forest managers are used to planning for decennials and they need to consider possible climate change scenarios. In addition, storm and bark beetle damage may necessitate rejuvenating the forest earlier and faster than foreseen. As an alternative to traditional plantations, an innovative direct seeding method in the forest is proposed. Trials have been conducted with…
Plant production

Heller W.E., Zoller C.

On the way to a quantitative Chalara test

Yarwood’s traditional and qualitative detection test for the soil borne pathogenic fungi Chalara elegans (synanamorph: Thielaviopsis basicola) and C. thielavioides (synanamorph: Chalaropsis thielavioides) in soils and substrates was modified in order to allow quantitative assessments of the population density of the fungi in soils. Preliminary results of independently repeated tests of different soils show a…
Plant production

Naef A., Monney P., Gasser S.

Replant problems in Swiss apple production

Replant diseases in fruit production affect tree growth and reduce yields when orchards are replanted. In 2008, a survey conducted by Agroscope ACW revealed an increase in replant problems in Swiss apple orchards. Investigations on two apple orchards where trees had been planted in altered row distance, have shown significantly better growth and higher yield…
Plant production

Neuweiler R., Heller W.E., Krauss J.

Preventive effects of different fertilization strategies against the clubroot disease (Plasmodiophora brassicae)

The clubroot disease causes considerable yield losses in the cultivation of Brassica vegetables. At an experimental site with an elevated infection pressure of the clubroot disease and with a pH-value of 6.8 calcium cyanamide and quicklime were tested for their preventive effect against this soil-borne disease in white cabbage crops in 2007 and 2008. Calcium…
Environment

Hediger W., Peter S., Hartmann M., Weber M., Lehmann B.

The reduction of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions

A recent study at the ETH Zurich shows that the development of agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Switzerland will, also in the near future, mainly depend on the development of livestock populations. Current GHG reduction measures may only play a marginal role, given their relatively high cost. Furthermore, the results indicate that the target…
Environment

Ammann C., Neftel A., Spirig C., Leitfeld J., Fuhrer J.

Nitrogen balance of hay meadows with and without fertilization

In a paired field experiment in Oensingen (Switzerland), a fertilised and an unfertilised meadow had been established in 2001 after conversion from arable rotation. Beside the carbon budget, also the entire nitrogen budget of the two grassland fields with all input and output processes have been measured since 2006. Although the nitrogen input to the…
Agricultural economics

Mack G., Zimmermann A., Moriz C.

Sustainability of concentrate use in dairy husbandry

Prices of animal feed play an important role for the use of concentrate and basic-ration feedstuffs in dairy husbandry. Calculations made with the SILAS model calculation system show that it is economically efficient to increase concentrate rations for dairy cows when feedstuff prices decrease. Sustainability analyses taking into account economic as well as social and…
Animal production

Hasler H., Flury C., Reist S., Braunschweig M., Gaudenz D., Drögemüller C., Drögemüller M., Haase B., Klukowska-Rötzler J., Burger D., Poncet P.A.

Current examples from animal breeding research in Switzerland

The increasing demand of safe and healthy animal products coupled with a decreasing availability of resources and ecological and economic pressures is considered a major challenge for animal production in the future. Research in animal breeding and genetics is therefore warranted in Switzerland. The selective mating of sires and dams represents a crucial step at…
Animal production

Dufey P.-A., Messadene J., Silacci P., Collomb M.

PASTO: quality of mountain beef

The aim of this study was to characterise mountain-produced meat. A total of 88 steers of the hardy Swiss Herens breed were compared. The animals came from extensive grassland mountain farms in the Alps (1200 and 1800 m above sea level) and in the Jura (1200 m) and from a lowland farm practising intensive fattening…