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Pittet G., Luginbühl W., Berger T.

Influence of the storage period between sampling and analysis on total bacterial count in milk

Every month, only one official milk-testing result is available from between 1000 and 1200 milk producers instead of the two required. Of the missing results, one part originates from milk-collection centers where milk delivery takes place every other day and sampling is performed manually, and is therefore attributable to the time delay between sampling notification…

Bachmann H.-P., Eugster E., Guggenbühl B., Schär H.

World champion cheese cultures

Swiss cheeses regularly win prizes at international contests. Experts widely agree that the microbial cultures from Liebefeld have contributed greatly to this success story. Thanks to the use of cultures with bacteria originally stemming from biodiversity in the nearby area, the connection between traditional Swiss cheeses and their terroir can be strengthened considerably. This article…

Hadorn R., Beutler E., Schlüchter S., Eberhard P., Silacci P., Scherrer D.

Supplementation of pig trunk material to Saucisson vaudois

Saucisson vaudois, a cold-smoked raw sausage, were produced with and without 8 % trunk material in five meat processing plants being members of the Association charcuterie vaudoise IGP (ACV-IGP). Production occurred by the use of company-specific standards for the recipes and the processing parameters. Supplementation of 8 % trunk material differed only in a few…

Hadorn R., Schlüchter S., Guggisberg D., Messadene-Chelali J., Piccinali P.

Cervelat production with beef casings from different origins

In comparison to the common beef casings from Brazil, beef small intestines from the following countries were tested for their applicability as natural casings for cervelat, a typical Swiss boiled sausage: Brazil (BRA, control), Uruguay (URU), Argentine (ARG), Paraguay (PAR), Australia (AUS), New Zealand (NZL) and Panama (PAN). The sausages were produced with the different…

Wehrmüller K., Jakob E., Ryffel S.

Orotic acid content in cow`s, ewe`s and goat`s milk

The ewe’s milk is much lauded for its high orotic acid content. This is sought after as a miracle cure and a universal drug. Although reliable data on this subject can not be found in the scientific literature, the myth of ewe’s milk particularly rich in orotic acid still persists. For this reason, the Agroscope…

Rehberger B., Bisig W., Bütikofer U., Collomb M., Eberhard P., Mallia S., Piccinali P., Schlichterle-Cerny H.

EU-Project Quality low input food: influence of processing on the content of conjugated linoleic acids

Among consumers there is a growing demand for food products with a natural nutritional-physiological advantage over comparable conventional products. As part of an EU funded project, Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux ALP examined the possible impact of processing on nutritionally valuable milk components, using the example of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Among the many benefits ascribed to CLA,…

Hummerjohann J., Ulmann B., Schällibaum M.

Incidence of paratuberculosis pathogens in Swiss raw milk

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), cause of paratuberculosis in cattle and other animals, is meant to be suspicious for being involved in Crohn’s disease, an inflammatory bowel disease of humans. As the bacterium is able to partially survive the pasteurization of milk and the process of cheese ripening, it is important to know the presence…

Gasser F., Eppler T., Naunheim W., Gabioud S., Höhn E.

Control of the critical oxygen level during dynamic CA storage of apples

The concept of dynamic CA storage (DCA) involves the reduction of the oxygen level in the storage atmosphere to near the lowest level tolerated by the fruit, the so-called anaerobic compensation point. Fruit quality loss during DCA storage is presumed to be slowed down compared to normal ULO storage. Storage conditions below the critical oxygen…

Bisig W., Collomb M., Bütikofer U., Sieber R., Bregy M., Etter L.

Seasonal variation of fatty acid composition in Swiss mountain `s milk

The influence of typical feeds in the five mountain regions Engadin, Rheinwald, Emmental, Luzerner Hinterland and Toggenburg on the fatty acid (FA) compostion of milkfat was investigated over one year from May 2004 till April 2005. The average altitude of grass-based feed (GBF) growth was 1247 ± 465 m for the summer feed and 1136 ±…

Neuweiler R., Krauss J., Konrad P., Imhof T.

Optimized N-fertilization in the production of chicory

During three years between 2004 and 2006 different levels of nitrogen including various strategies of temporal partitioning were studied with the chicory variety Vintor. The objectives of these experiments were to assess the impact of N fertilization on the development and quality of the chicory roots and thereafter on the performance of the roots at…

Morel I.

Dairy cow feeding and folic acid in milk

A trial with 36 dairy cows in mid-lactation allotted to 3 groups was carried with the aim to evaluate the possibility of increasing the concentration of folic acid in milk by feeding rations naturally rich in folic acid. This experimental ration contained brewery waste, cubes of alfalfa, brewers’ yeast and wheat germ in addition to…

Sieber R., Bütikofer U., Kaldas N., Rehberger B.

Occurence of lysinoalanine in milk and dairy products

Lysinoalanine (LAL) is produced as an undesirable secondary product during alkaline treatment of proteins or the heating of foodstuffs containing proteins. Because of their closeness, dehydroalanine reacts with the lysine ε-amino group. Since the reaction is largely irreversible, the value of the lysine content is almost completely or totally blocked. Due to an improvement in…

Mühlemann M., Aebischer S.

Food safety and health protection in pratice

Over the course of time, various concepts relating to the hygiene and safety of food have been developed. These concepts apply to various levels of the food chain and have partially overlapping concerns. Recently, these systems relating to the safety of food have to be linked to programs of public health. This is carried out…

Hadorn R., Piccinali P., Suter M.

Fat reduction with inulin in water-boiled sausages

In a trial with lyoners and in comparison to a control (REF) with a total of 22% backfat, 15% backfat was replaced in three experimental sausages as follows: 15% inulin gel of supplier A (IG-A), 7,5% inulin powder of supplier B plus 7,5% ice water (IP-B), 4,5% inulin powder and 1% wheat fibre of supplier…

Höhn E., Baumgartner D., Crespo P., Gasser F.

Regulation of fruit ripening by 1-methylcyclopropene and apple storage

Since autumn 2005 treatment of apples with SmartFresh™ (active compound 1-Methylcyclopropene, MCP) is permitted in Switzerland. MCP is an ethylene inhibitor. It binds to the ethylene receptors and prevents ripening processes which are induced by ethylene. Enthusiastic postharvest scientist called it the “magic pullet” and presumed that application of this compound will revolutionize storage technology…

Maurer J., Schaeren W.

Sheep milk is a high-value food

The aims of the investigation were to develop a better way of describing the composition and quality of sheep milk (milk as received from suppliers), and to identify possible differences between the milks obtained from the two sheep breeds most commonly used in Switzerland (Lacaunes and Ostfriesian milk sheep) and from cross-breeds of these two.…

Jakob E., Badertscher R., Bütikofer U.

Composition of Bernese Alpine Cheese (“Berner Alpkäse”) and Bernese Planing Cheese (“Berner Hobelkäse”)

Samples of selected premium quality Bernese Alpkäse (BA) and Bernese Hobelkäse (BH) were analysed for dry matter, fat, protein, salt, lactic acid, volatile carboxylic acids, and non-protein nitrogen. In addition, the calcium content of BA was determined and in BH the concentrations of free amino acids and of biogenic amines were measured. The moisture in…

Vergères G.

Nutrigenomics: science or fiction

Research in the domain of human nutrition is marked by the emergence of nutrigenomics, a science that bases itself on three decades of developments in life sciences (medicine, biochemistry, molecular biology), microtechnics and informatics. The sequencing of the human genome has opened the door to a holistic approach in which genetic material, proteins and metabolites…

Fröhlich-Wyder M.-T., Bütikofer U., Guggisberg D., Wechsler D.

Raclette cheese: less calcium for better melting properties

ALP conducted studies with experimental raclette cheese made from pasteurised milk to obtain a better understanding of the influence of calcium on the melting properties of raclette cheese. The trial presented here achieved its aim of using various factors to lower the calcium content of the cheese and increase the proportion of dissolved calcium. The…

Eigenmann C., Kellerhals M.

Which apples do the consumers require?

The survey at hand on new apple varieties and the survey on consumer habits were conducted in 2005 at the BEA 05 in Berne and in 2006 at the Migros in Wädenswil. The investigation was part of the EU project HIDRAS, which is concerned with the development of high-quality disease resistant apple varieties for a…

Collomb M., Bütikofer U., Mauer J., Sieber R.

Fatty acids composition of ewe`s milk at different altitudes

The fatty acid composition was determined in ewe’s milk (pasture feeding), originating from plain, subalpine and alpine areas. Significant differences were encountered in the milk of the three origins. Compared to cow milk, the fatty acids which differed significantly depending on the altitude were often different, probably because of the different fodder specific for sheep…

Berger T., Badertscher R.

Sampling of milk and dairy products

Sampling has to be based on a distinct problem definition and clear analytical questions. A detailed sampling planning has to be derived from it, including statistical considerations and being integrated in a quality system. Sampling of milk and milk products is well described in official regulations and international standards. Guidance document ISO 707 | IDF…

Collomb M., Eberhard P., Wechsler D., Sieber R.

Seasonal variation of fatty acids in alpine butter

A previous study has shown the small variation in the concentration of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in alpine dairy products during the grazing period. The present study complements our knowledge of the influence of grazing period on the concentration of other fatty acids in alpine dairy products. Generally, the concentration of these fatty acids was…

Fröhlich-Wyder M.-T., Eugster-Meier E.

Can Swiss type cheese be produced without a period in the fermentation room?

Laboratory investigations at Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux, Swiss Federal Research Station for Animal Production and Dairy Products ( ALP), had shown that propionibacteria are also able to grow relatively well at low temperatures (14º C). This could be proven not only for the two cultures Prop 01 and Prop 96, but also for many other strains too.…