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Thomet A., Fragnière C.

Milk concentrate is interesting for small dairies

The production of cheese from milk concentrate made by microfiltration is an economic alternative to traditional cheese making for small dairies.The estimated production cost of the milk concentrate are between 2.88 to 5.04 CHF/kg calculated to a batch size of 3’000 kg milk, depending on the intended purpose. The further processing of the milk concentrate…

Bogdanov S., Edder P.

Contamination of honey by a sulfonamide after the use of a herbicide in agriculture

Since several years the Swiss cantonal laboratories carry out regularly control of antibiotic residues in honey. In few honeys residues of an unknown sulfonamide, sulphanilamide, have been detected. We investigated in one particular case, in order to find out the contamination source. The honeys concerned were harvested in three apiaries situated in an area of…

Fluri P., Frick R.

beekeeping in Switzerland: facts and importance

Bees accomplish an important contribution to the national economy by pollinating economic and wild plants and by producing honey, pollen and wax. The pollination value of one bee colony based on the harvest cost of fruit trees and berries accounts to about 1250 Swiss Francs per year, in addition to the value of the bee…

Thomet A., Rehberger B., Wyss B., Bisig W.

Obtaining sugar syrup from milk serum

The Swiss dairy industry needs to find new solutions for the economical and ecological use of by-products such as whey and ultrafiltration-permeates (UF-permeate). A possible key solution is the use of nanofiltration. Nanofiltration of hydrolysed whey or UF-permeate yields various sugar solutions.The Swiss Federal Research Station for Animal Production and Dairy Products (ALP) and the…

Thomet A., Bachmann H.-P., Schafroth K.

Raclette cheese with whey proteins – innovative and economical

The incorporation of precious whey proteins into semi-hard cheeses is a worldwide aim. ALP has developed an attractive new procedure to assimilate whey proteins into Raclette cheese. This new technology permits the manufacture of high quality ripe Raclette cheese with good melting properties. The raw milk undergoes thermal treatment followed by concentration (approximately 17 %)…

Thomet A., Bachmann H.-P., Schafroth K.

Standardisation of cheese-milk with microfiltration

Micro filtration (MF) is especially suitable for partially concentrating cheese vat milk with a protein and fat content of 5 – 6%. The quantitative ratio of the principal constituents, protein fat and lactose, can be set fairly precisely by the use of MF – technology (filter 0.1 mm). Thus it is possible to correct for…

Sieber R., Collomb M.

Formation of conjugated linoleic acids through starter cultures

The conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) contained in milk fat have a high health amelioration potential. The capacity of different starter cultures to form CLA from linoleic acid could be used to increase the CLA level in fermented dairy products. In a medium supplemented with linoleic acid, some strains of lactobacilli, lactococci and streptococci as well…

Höhn E., Künsch U., Infanger E., Koch W.

Were fruits more nutritious in former times?

The headline “fruits and vegetables diminished in their nutritional quality” appeared in recent years in the media. The claimed quality loss was supposedly related to changes in agricultural practice. The comparison of contents of nine minerals and eleven vitamins of the five most important locally produced fruits as published in three different food composition databases…

Höhn E., Künsch U., Infanger E., Koch W.

Were vegetables more nutritious in former times?

The headline “fruits and vegetables diminished in their nutritional quality” appeared in recent years in the media. The claimed quality loss was supposedly related to changes in agricultural practice and depletion of the soil. The comparison of contents of nine minerals and eleven vitamins of the 7 most important vegetables as published in three different…

Casey M.G., Gruskovnjak J., Fröhlich-Wyder M.-T.

Reaction of Streptococcus thermophilus to Stress

The effect of low pH on the survival of S. thermophilus in liquid cultures was studied. Results showed that the bacteria do not live more than a week at 37°C when grown in milk. Survival can be prolonged by growing them in diluted milk or preferably in M17 containing low concentrations of lactose. It would…

Bachmann H.-P., Thomet A., Schafroth K.

Innovatives processes for cheese-making

Milk was concentrated by microfiltration. From this concentrate fresh, soft and semihard cheeses can be produced very easily. These processes are also economically very attractive: less investments in plants and infrastructure, labour saving, high-grade by-products (unacidified permeate with native whey proteins) and the option for a continuous production. On the occasion of several practical demonstrations,…

Aebi R., Mühlemann M., Bühlmann G., Schällibaum M.

Risk assessment of L. monocytogenes in Swiss Emmental raw milk cheese

About 33% of the total Swiss agricultural earnings are from the milk production which is important to the Swiss agricultural industry. Our approach follows the origin and propagation of Listeria monocytogenes-contamination using data and expert-knowledge at all involved production levels and competence areas. The result is shown in a contamination profile along the food production…

Mühlemann M., Aebi R., Schällibaum M.

An introduction to risk analysis and microbiological risk assessment

In this article, the concepts of microbiological risk analysis are presented as well as risk assessment following the Codex Alimentarius guidelines. Special attention is given firstly to the so-called infectious disease triangle between host, microorganism and foodstuff and secondly to different approaches of risk assessment in practice. The dynamic process of controlling risks is visualised…

Isolini D., Fröhlich-Wyder M.-T.

Results of screening of lipolytic activity in propionibacteria extrapolated to Emmental cheese production

The lipolytic activity of six strains of propionibacteria were differentiated in laboratory, using a simple method based on the incubation of cells in milk fat and the subsequent determination of free fatty acids. The production of cheese with the analysed strains confirmed that the propionibacteria are essentially responsible for the lipolysis in Emmental cheese and…

Collomb M., Malke P., Spahni M., Sieber R., Bütikofer U.

Different lipolysis in winter cheese compared to summer

This study shows results on the content of individual free fatty acids in six different ripened winter and summer Swiss cheeses. The sum of the content of free fatty acids formed by lipolysis was always higher in winter cheeses than in summer ones, the one in Emmental being 4 to 5 times higher than in…

Eberhard P., Bütikofer U., Sieber R.

Vitamins in stored high heated milk

Whole milk was pasteurised with a direct method at 125 °C and an indirect method at 115 °C. Immediately after heating and storage at 5 °C during 1 and 4 weeks, the vitamins B1, B6, B12 as well as folic acid were examined. No losses due to storage (storage losses) were detected with Vitamin B12…

Thomet A., Sieber R., Gugolz R., Gantenbein-Demarchi C.

Efficient conservation of microorganisms by flow bed-drying

The process of flow bed drying has been used for the conservation of several different products for some time. Preliminary experiments for the conservation of lactic acid bacteria gave positive results. Commercial use of the flow bed-drying technology for the conservation and confectioning of microorganisms used in fermentation processes seems to be realisable, however, further…