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Food

Sieber R., Haldimann M., Zimmerli B.

Selenium status of the Swiss population and the agriculture

The natural environmental conditions in Switzerland are not in favor of an adequate selenium supply to humans and animals. However, the results of different studies (food, blood serum) demonstrate a sufficient selenium status of the population. The reasons are selenium-rich wheat imported from North-America as well as the supplementation of feeds for domestic animals. It…
Food

Höhn E., Guggenbühl B.

Market demands on Golden Delicious Apples

Sugar content and firmness are two important factors determining eating quality of apples. Sensory analysis with a trained panel confirmed that sweetness, sourness, fruitiness and firmness can be predicted by instrumental measurements such as total soluble solids (refractometer), titratable acidity and firmness measurements by penetrometer. Tests with consumers indicated that Golden Delicious of acceptable eating…
Food

Eberhard P., Strahm W., Eyer H.

High pressure treatment of whipped cream

Pasteurized cream with 260, 290, 320 and 350 g/kg fat content was treated by high pressure in the range between 300 and 800 MPa. Whipping properties of cream with fat content < 320 g/kg was better after pressurization. The whipping time was 15 to 25 % shorter and loss of serum was lower. This is…
Food

Dufey P.-A., Chambaz A.

Label production in Switzerland and beef quality

Switzerland is not exempted from the proliferation of labels in the beef industry. The possible effects on beef quality of the specific norms which have been elaborated by the label organisations are discussed in this review. The quality of the final product depends not only on the way the animals are fattened, it depends even…
Food

Dufey P.-A., Chambaz A.

Effects of production factors on the quality of beef

Meat quality is the result of complex effects, which depend on many factors, primarily the location of the muscle in the body, but also on sex, breed, nutrition, growth rate, age at slaughter, fatness and carcass conformation. The literature on the subject of the various influencing factors is reviewed, and their impact on bovine meat…
Food

Dufey P.-A.

Meat is a valuable dietary source of CLA

The conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) represent a group of natural isomers which are derived from linoleic acid. Because of their unique characteristics they exert chemical and physiological effects on the organism which differ from those of linoleic acid. In animal models as well as in in vitro models using tumour cells of human origin, they…
Food

Bachmann H.-P.

Influence of manufacturing process on butyric acid fermentation in hard cheeses

In Switzerland the amount of hard cheeses spoilt by butyric acid fermentation increased in the last years distinctly. Two main reasons are discussed: higher counts of spores of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in milk or better conditions for germination and growth in cheese. Cheese-making trials allowed to show, that high cooking temperatures in the manufacturing process can…
Food

Lehmann O., Klantschitsch T., Puhan Z.

Yield of raw milk cheese vs. cheese from microfiltered milk

Contamination of milk with spores of Clostridium tyrobutyricum is causing late blowing in hard and semi-hard cheese. The microfiltration at 12°C and 40°C reduced the count of spores efficiently making it possible to manufacture cheese of good quality from silage milk with initially high spore contamination. The mass balance showed that microfiltration at 12°C resulted…
Food

Künsch U., Schärer H., Patrian B., Hurter J., Conedera M., Sassella A., Jermini M., Jelmini G.

Quality assessment of chestnut fruit from the Ticino region

“It is planned to cultivate suitable chestnut varieties for commercial use in the Ticino region of Switzerland. Quality analysis were carried out on five native chestnut varieties and the results compared with a commercial variety. With the exception of “”Pinca”” the fruit size of the native varieties was significantly smaller than that of the imported…
Food

Sieber R.

Increased mucus production and exacerbation of asthma after consumption of milk?

The belief that in human consumption of milk produces more mucus is widespread. After Australian studies, some parameters of mucus production changed after consumption of milk. But these effects are not specific for milk because a non-cow’s milk drink with similar sensory characteristics caused the same changes. Individuals who believe it have more respiratory symptoms.…
Food

Zehntner U.

Phage analysis in Swiss dairy plants 1986-1996

Since 1986, the FAM offers to the consultant services the possibility to have phages analysed. Methods used for this purpose have been optimised and are, since 1994, integrated in an accredited field. Our experiments have shown that phages participate in most of the starter acidification failures. Although phages have to be tolerated in dairy factories,…
Food

Bosset J.O., Berger T., Bütikofer U., Collomb M., Gauch R., Lavanchy P., Sieber R., Jeangros B.

Comparison of Swiss hard cheese Gruyère-type produced in highland and lowland

This study compares the specificity and characteristics of two Swiss hard (Gruyère) cheese varieties manufactured at different altitudes: i) L’Etivaz cheese manufactured at L’Etivaz with 2 production sites (L’Etivaz 1 & I’Etivaz 2, 1300-2100 m), ii) Gruyère cheese manufactured Montbovon (1000 m) and at Grangeneuve/Posieux (600 m). These four production sites were studied during the…
Food

Künsch U., Schärer H., Hurter J., Konrad P., Kressebuch B., Jelmini G., Chettrini S.

Calcium content of broccoli and kale: influence of the production method

A daily supply of 800 to 1200 mg Calcium in adolescence is crucial to prevent osteoporosis in the adult. Vegetarians are dependent on calcium rich vegetables. Recent research data indicate that the bioavailability of calcium from broccoli and kale is almost identical to that of milk. In our experiments broccoli and kale were grown in…
Food

Bachmann H.-P.

Lipolysis in cheese: not too much – not too little

Propionibacteria are playing a key role in the lipolysis of Swiss-type cheeses. The statistical evaluation of datas collected from 30 commercial Emmental cheeses produced with two different propionibacteria cultures allowed to show, that lipolysis increases the intensity of the flavour. It was concluded that the weaker lipolysis in the cheeses with one of the two…
Food

Bachmann H.-P.

Fermentation of aspartate by propionibacteria increases the risk of second fermentation in Swiss type cheese

The statistical evaluation of datas collected from 30 commercial Emmental cheeses showed, that the deamination of aspartate to succinate by propionibacteria (aspartate metabolism) increases the risk of late fermentation in Swiss-type cheeses. It is not only the additional carbondioxide which is released during aspartate metabolism which reduces the potential time of storage, but it is…